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Imperio de la Ley e Independencia Judicial

Continuo con mis explicaciones sobre mi charla de imperio de la ley (primera y segunda entrada). Uno de los pilares fundamentales del imperio de la ley substantivo es la independencia judicial: esta es condición necesaria (aunque no suficiente) para aquel.

Pero yo no puedo defender este argumento mejor que Alexander Hamilton en Federalist Paper 78:

“For I agree, that "there is no liberty, if the power of judging be not separated from the legislative and executive powers." And it proves, in the last place, that as liberty can have nothing to fear from the judiciary alone, but would have every thing to fear from its union with either of the other departments; that as all the effects of such a union must ensue from a dependence of the former on the latter, notwithstanding a nominal and apparent separation; that as, from the natural feebleness of the judiciary, it is in continual jeopardy of being overpowered, awed, or influenced by its co-ordinate branches; and that as nothing can contribute so much to its firmness and independence as permanency in office, this quality may therefore be justly regarded as an indispensable ingredient in its constitution, and, in a great measure, as the citadel of the public justice and the public security.

The complete independence of the courts of justice is peculiarly essential in a limited Constitution (nota: las itálicas son mías). By a limited Constitution, I understand one which contains certain specified exceptions to the legislative authority; such, for instance, as that it shall pass no bills of attainder, no ex post facto laws, and the like. Limitations of this kind can be preserved in practice no other way than through the medium of courts of justice, whose duty it must be to declare all acts contrary to the manifest tenor of the Constitution void. Without this, all the reservations of particular rights or privileges would amount to nothing.”

Es por ello que legislación como nuestra Ley Orgánica del Poder Judicial (en particular en el contexto de un sistema de partidos como el Español) o la manera en la que hemos seleccionado por décadas a los miembros del Tribunal Constitucional son incompatibles con un verdadero imperio de la ley. Y no, transformar el sistema de elección en "más democrático" no soluciona el problema: lo agrava aún más al convertir al sistema judicial en una reproducción del legislativo.